Uganda is in a transitional period in terms of both financing needs and opportunities. Since Fiscal Year 2009/10 net financing requirements have consistently exceeded available net concessional lending – and this trend looks set to continue into the medium term. At the same time an increasing range of alternative, non-concessional financing options have begun to open up, both domestic and external.
Fiscal capacity is one of the most important constraints on economic growth (Besley and Persson, 2013). In developing countries, the state’s ability to tax its citizens is typically limited by (a) the cost of acquiring accurate information on taxable activities, and (b) the tax agency’s capacity to enforce the tax rules. (The literature has highlighted the central role of information flows for fiscal capacity (Kleven, Kreiner, and Saez, 2009), and of civil servants’ characteristics on government capacity/performance (e.g. Dal Bo, Finan, and Rossi, 2013).
Teacher absenteeism remains a serious challenge in Uganda, with estimated rates of absence as high as 27 per cent. Evidence from other countries suggests that a monitoring scheme, combined with bonus payments, could reduce absenteeism, and improve education performance. However, it is unclear what form this scheme should take.
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Rapid urbanization coupled with lack of adequate infrastructural services and job opportunities has brought in new socio-economic and environmental problems in the developing world. One such issue that requires urgent attention is the mounting e-waste stockpiles and attendant informal recycling operations, which has grown from being a concern for regional and local governments to an issue of national importance in Ghana (Amankwaa 2013). Agbogbloshie in Accra, Ghana, has become a major site for the intersection of various dynamics.
Consumption of chemical fertilizers (mainly Urea, Phosphates and Potash or NPK) has risen rapidly in Bihar in recent years, faster than in the rest of India, and the farmers of Bihar now use higher quantities of NPK per hectare of net sown area (200 kg/ha) than the national average (135 kg/ha). Despite that, crop yields are still generally lower in Bihar. A more balanced usage of fertilizers and increased use of secondary nutrients and micro-nutrients, such as Zinc, Sulfur, Boron, etc.
This project seeks to develop a dataset on the extent and location of de facto urbanisation – settlements with characteristics commonly thought of as urban - in India. Based on Census data, about one-third of India is often thought of as urban. However, census classification as urban requires at least 75% of the adult male workforce to be in non-farm employment and has a relatively high bar (in international comparison) for population density.
The Indian national government has embraced the development of corridors between major Indian cities as a key development strategy: for example, work on the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor is already underway while a second corridor between Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai is being planned. This follows earlier policies like the development of the Golden Quadrilateral and the North-South and East-West corridors that emphasised connecting the four major Indian metros.