This research project investigates the nature of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) between India and Pakistan that mitigate free trade between the countries. In particular, it seeks to compare how these instruments compare to those used by other countries in the region, and the legal instruments implemented in Pakistan to maintain and change them over time. India-Pakistan trade is a hugely salient policy issue, particularly in the wake of Pakistan’s awarding of MFN status to India, and understanding these barriers will permit the design of policy to address them. Through comparisons to similar structures in India, China and Sri Lanka, the study embeds the findings into a broader context from a primarily legal perspective. The Principal Investigators on the project are Sikander Shah and Uzair Kayani from the Lahore School of Management Sciences. The project finds that NTBs are lower in Pakistan than its comparator countries but there is a significant risk that they may grow. Policy recommendations stem from the feasibility of the multilateral lowering of tariffs.