The rapid growth of cities on the African continent brings tremendous economic potential, facilitating the spread of innovation, industry and education. However, this promise is blighted by significant negative externalities associated with big city density, including congestion and contagious disease. There is a view among urban economists that one of the most important roles of urban government is to provide clean water and remove potentially dangerous waste. The aims of the research funded by IGC under this grant are to collect measures of both the private and social benefits of water in order to determine what incentives households have to connect to existing water lines, as well as the impact of household water connections on health, productivity, employment, and education. This project is part of an Urban Agenda developed along with the Government of Zambia as part of their commitment to promoting evidence-based solutions to promoting the healthy and productive growth of cities in Zambia.