Bernard Hoekman is Director of Global Economics at the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (Global Governance Programme) at the European University Institute; and a CEPR Research Fellow. Prior positions at the World Bank include Director of the International Trade Department; Research Manager of the trade team in the Development Research Group; task leader of the trade capacity building program of the World Bank Institute. During the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations he worked as a research economist in the GATT Secretariat (1988-93). He has published widely on the multilateral trading system and economic development, trade in services, and preferential trade agreements.. He is a graduate of the Erasmus University Rotterdam, holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan and is Senior Associate of the Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey.