Errol D’Souza studied economics and statistics at the University of Mumbai where he was awarded the Kashinath Trimbak Telang gold medal for obtaining the first rank in his MA degree. He went on to receive his Ph.D. as a University Grants Commission National Research Fellow from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, with a study of the fiscal limitations on state intervention in post-Independence India. He joined Goa University as an assistant professor in the Department of Economics and, for some time, was a consultant to the Finance Department, Government of Goa. In 1994, he moved to the University of Mumbai as an associate professor in industrial economics and public finance. In 1995, he was awarded a Ford Foundation fellowship and was a visiting scholar at Columbia University, New York, where he did theoretical work on the effectiveness of fiscal policy and tax evasion. Subsequently, in January 1999, he was appointed Industrial Finance Corporation of India Chair Professor at the Department of Economics, University of Mumbai. Currently, Professor D’Souza is a professor of economics at the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. He is a consultant to the Indian industry and the banking sector, the Reserve Bank of India, the United Nations Development Programme, the International Labour Organization, the Planning Commission, as well as the central and various state governments; he has worked as a member of the academic committees of the University Grants Commission and the Indian Council of Social Science Research; and he was an associate of the Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla. He is also a director on the board of the National Housing Bank and an honorary senior fellow at the National University of Singapore.