Dr. Shabbir Ahmad is research fellow at Australian Institute of Business and Economics (AIBE), the University of Queensland (UQ), Australia. Previously, he worked as a research fellow at the Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining (CSRM), Sustainable Minerals Institute (SMI), UQ. He is also an assistant professor at International Institute of Islamic Economics, International Islamic University Islamabad (currently on leave). Dr. Ahmad has completed his PhD in Econometrics from the School of Economics, UQ. He worked with Professor Christopher O’Donnell and Professor Knox Lovell to develop novel econometric methods to measure and decompose total factor productivity. Due to his substantialcontribution in the field of efficiency and productivity analysis, he has received 2014 Dean’s Award for Outstanding Research Higher Degree Thesis. He also holds another PhD with specialization in financial economics. His area of research includes efficiency and productivity analysis, environment and sustainability, and financial regulation and governance. Currently, he is working on smallholders’ agricultural productivity and profitability issues in Pakistan, which has been supported by Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIR), a statutory authority of Australian Aid Program. In another Australian government funded project, he is also developing regional economic assessment models for mining sector development in African countries.