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This paper reviews the literature on three main questions related to energy and environment and outlines the areas with greatest potential for research progress in the next five years:
- How will the last billion people get access to energy, and what benefits will it bring for their welfare and livelihoods?
- How can environmental regulation check the local harms from energy consumption in countries with weak enforcement capacity?
- What are the most effective ways for developing countries to slow the growth of greenhouse gas emissions associated with increased energy consumption and adapt to the effects of climate change?