The impact and sustainability of off-grid solutions (e.g. solar, wind and mini-hydro power plants) and understanding the rural energy mix in Zambia

The electrification programmes currently being implemented include off-grid solutions such as solar and mini-hydro power plants. Research in this area might consider the success or otherwise of these systems thus far in terms of benefits for the community and the sustainability of these options in the longer-term in relation to developing more extensive grid connections.