What are the mechanisms that can improve accountability of bureaucrats and politicians to citizens, in order to enhance public service delivery

Growth is also hindered by misgovernance. It impedes the state’s ability to deliver the right type, and quality, of public services that are necessary for growth. Misgovernance in Pakistan is both a result of distortions in the institutional design of the system of government and weak accountability mechanisms that enable citizens to hold politicians and bureaucrats accountable. Effective policy requires an identification of mechanisms that will enhance accountability of bureaucrats and politicians to citizens, and so ensure that public services support growth.

Previous research includes work on monitoring the monitors through ICT in social service delivery, an experiment on bureaucrat time use, type and program performance, testing bureaucrat autonomy and performance pay for public procurement, reducing collusion in customs inspections using anonymization and remote clearance, and a survey on public goods provision in Lahore slums