Increased energy access and consumption is essential for economic growth and development. However, this growth often comes with a variety of environmental costs. First, we research how the transition to clean energy generation in developing economies can be achieved across energy demand and supply and politics. Next, we look at how today’s climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies can develop less carbon-intensive energy systems and more climate-resilient economies. Finally, we examine how to minimise local environmental damage, such as air pollution and environmental degradation, by raising awareness of its effects on health, human capital, and productivity, and designing and enforcing effective regulations.