The world’s poorest people lack capital and skills and toil for others in occupations that others shun. Using a large-scale and long-term randomised control trial in Bangladesh this paper demonstrates that sizable transfers of assets and skills enable the poorest women to shift out of agricultural labour and into running small businesses. This shift, which persists and strengthens after assistance is withdrawn, leads to a 38% increase in earnings.
Current IMF forecasts predict growth in real GDP on the order of 6-7 percent per year for Liberia. The political leadership of Liberia believes that double-digit growth will be required in order to meet the expectations of the electorate, and consequently, lead to greater political stability. Political stability is the sina qua non for ensuring peace in Liberia, which, along with improving human development outcomes, is the primary goal of the current government. The President of Liberia, H.E.
Mining reduces agricultural productivity by almost 40%
Gold mining and its resulting pollution has reduced agricultural productivity by almost 40% in Ghana. The displacement of agriculture by gold mining can also be associated with increases in poverty, child malnutrition and respiratory diseases.
When the United Progressive Alliance came to power in the Indian general elections of May 2004, it published a Common Minimum Programme in which it promised to end the eviction of tribal and other forest-dwelling people from forest lands. In March 2005, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs presented the first draft of the Forest Rights Act that guaranteed the right of tribal and other forest-dwellers to continue to cultivate forest land that they had cultivated in the past.
This project responds to the need of tens of millions of rural households across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to have their tubewell tested for arsenic. Chronic exposure to arsenic by drinking groundwater at over 10 times the level of the current World Health Organization guideline of 10 microgram per liter has been shown to double all-cause deaths in a large cohort study conducted in Bangladesh. Arsenic in tubewell water has also been associated with impaired intellectual and motor function in children.
The past three decades in India have witnessed a sharp reduction in the historically large gaps in the education levels, occupation choices and wages of the backward castes called scheduled castes and tribes (SC/STs) relative to the rest of the population (non-SC/STs). Viktoria Hnatkovska and Amartya Lahiri examine how these changes have impacted the saving behavior of the two groups. They find that while the saving rates of SC/STs exceeded that of non-SC/STs in 1983, this excess saving of SC/STs declined during 1983-2010 period.
Rajshri Jayaraman, Debraj Ray and Shing-Yi Wang study gender differentials in the seeking of eye care by utilising a unique dataset collected with the assistance of Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. Jayaraman et al. assess possible gender-based discrepancies in diagnosed eye disease, conditional on seeking care.
Tertiary education has fuelled the economic growth in India in recent times. This has in turn generated excess demand for highly a educated and skilled workforce. Against this backdrop, it is vital to understand whether public institutions should be expanded or private institutions could provide good quality higher education so that public subsidies could be targeted towards merit-cum-need based scholarships.