Fishman, Jain and Kishore document patterns of rural-urban migration and employment shifts in a region that is facing on-going depletion of groundwater resources in northern Gujarat, India. Given that migration typically does not occur due to one singular risk, this study assessed the multifactorial drivers of migration. Survey results revealed migration and employment shifts were dominated by the Patel caste, which is the dominant landowning caste in the region.
Informal monitoring and enforcement can increase the efficacy of public service delivery. Nagavarapu and Sekhri study the Targeted Public Distribution System of India and find that Scheduled Castes (SC) have a higher take-up of government subsidised food when facing SC delivery agents. The researchers provide evidence suggesting that this effect works through increased informal monitoring and enforcement when the delivery agent is corrupt.
In the Indian state of Bihar, the prevalence of underweight children (56.1%) is far worse than the national average and higher than any country in the world. To address this issue, the State and Central governments commit over Rs. 1,100 crore per year ($200 million) to a supplementary nutrition programme.
Pakistan, like Mexico, suffers from a distorted tax system replete with special provisions for vested interest groups, often justified on the grounds of equity or redistribution. The result is that the tax collection falls short of what is needed to maintain levels of service provision or meet MDG goals. There is insufficient financing to provide for the infrastructure needs for investment, or even to maintain existing investment, with tax/GDP ratios at 10% or less (as in the Pakistan case). In most cases, the tax breaks are inadequate in meeting distributional considerations.
Pakistan’s GDP growth has slowed to a barely 3 percent rate that is economically and politically unacceptable. The country’s technological backwardness, its low-level of industrialisation, the scale of its domestic market and the youth bulge all suggest that it is punching much below its weight.
This paper provides evidence that graduates of elite public institutions in India have an earnings advantage in the labour-market even though attending these colleges has no discernible effect on learning outcomes. Data do not bear out the predictions of signaling or networking theories of human capital. Using original survey data, Sheetal Sekhri finds that college networks do not facilitate job search. Also, the wage-premium does not dissipate with experience. However, the number of college friends in the same industry does explain the wage premium.
The rapid pace of recent policy developments towards trade liberalization with India has created space for scholarly research to understand its implications for Pakistani businesses and consumers. The decision of Pakistan to grant India MFN status assumes immense significance as it appears to have been received by many in Pakistan with a sense of optimism combined with some trepidation.