The rapid pace of recent policy developments towards trade liberalization with India has created space for scholarly research to understand its implications for Pakistani businesses and consumers. The decision of Pakistan to grant India MFN status assumes immense significance as it appears to have been received by many in Pakistan with a sense of optimism combined with some trepidation.
A large number of international organisations support agricultural research in Tanzania. Many, but not all of these are coordinated by the Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers (CGIAR). Others are similar but private, such as the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE) which is based in Nairobi, Kenya. The above receive support from international donors such as the World Bank and USAID, and from major NGOs such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
In the first paper in this project, Amartya Lahiri and Viktoria Hnatkovska examine the gaps between rural and urban India in terms of the education attainment, occupation choices, consumption and wages. They study the period 1983-2005 using household survey data from successive rounds of the National Sample Survey. Lahiri and Hnatkovska find that this period has been characterised by a significant narrowing of the differences in education, occupation distribution, and wages between individuals in rural India and their urban counterparts.
Mandated fuel regulation for public vehicles has been a leading instrument used in many south Asian cities to reduce pollution and improve urban air quality. In India, the trend was set in 2001 when the Supreme Court ruled that all buses, taxis and auto-rickshaws in the capital New Delhi must run on compressed natural gas (CNG). Under the court’s directive, similar regulatory initiatives were set in motion in several other medium and large Indian cities.
High levels of industrial pollution are a harmful byproduct of growth. The Indian state of Gujarat is an industrial powerhouse with about 5 percent of the Indian population, but 9 percent of India's registered manufacturing employment and 19 percent of output (Authors' calculation, Annual Survey of Industries, 2004-05). This growth has been accompanied by a degradation of air and water quality.
Information asymmetry between voters and governments is a key determinant of democratic failure. This is the underlying premise of new IGC-funded research by Jessica Gottlieb (Stanford University) which examines how improving voter expectations of local government capacity in Mali can increase government performance. The research finds that increasing the understanding of a citizen about what their government has the potential capacity to do leads to voting more likely to be based on performance, rather than as a result of kinship ties or gift-giving.
Globalisation has heightened the process of informalisation in developing countries. In India, there has been a significant expansion of the informal sector since the radical economic reforms of 1991, and at present, out of the 485 million workers in India, 86 per cent of them are in the unorganised and informal sector. The informal sector is the largest employment provider in the manufacturing sector in India. One major concern is its low productivity and efficiency despite its growing share in employment and output.
Poor governance can be an important cause behind the disappointing performance of public programmes in developing countries. In this study we seek to identify the impact of female leadership on the governance of a large poverty alleviation programme in India, in a context where local people can closely monitor the actual against the prescribed allocation of public funds.