PIDE lecture – Energy deficiency and energy dependency

National and international energy policies have very important role in regional and global power equilibrium and its importance is increasing. In this respect, diversification of energy resources and their transportations routes, efficient use of local resources and the use of existing energy resources with various technological and strategic practices in the most efficient way possible are necessary in order to improve energy security and reduce dependence on foreign energy sources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources stand out as an important issueS especially regarding energy supply security, reducing foreign energy dependency, economic development, maintaining the balance between environment and sustainability as well as making important gains in all these issues. Thus, Improving energy efficiency saves money, reduces carbon emissions and decreases your country’s dependence on foreign energy supplies. Energy security – the uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price – can also profit from improved energy efficiency by decreasing the reliance on imported fossil fuels. Possible improvements in energy efficiency are examined in six main categories: 1) buildings, 2) industry, 3) transportation, 4) electricity generation and distribution, 5) appliances and equipment, and 6) lighting. According to the Turkish Energy Efficiency Strategy Document (2013-2023), it was observed that with rational policies and technological improvements, a minimum of 20% increase is possible in energy efficiency between 2013 and 2023. In the last year, major energy-consuming countries also have announced new measures: China is targeting a 16% reduction in energy intensity by 2015; the United States has adopted new fuel economy standards; the European Union has committed to a cut of 20% in its 2020 energy demand; and Japan aims to cut 10% from electricity consumption by 2030. The aim of this paper is to study the importance of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources and their roles on reducing energy dependency and promoting energy security. In addition, the energy efficiency applications of Turkey will be discussed and general energy Outlook of Pakistan will be presented in this study.