Impact of COVID-19 on fresh produce supply chains
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- Farming remains the predominant occupation and source of income for 48% of the population of Punjab, Pakistan.
- Recent studies have provided suggestive evidence on the exploitation of farmers by middlemen through low offer prices and informal loans.
- Very little research has been done to investigate this influential position occupied by the different tiers of middlemen in the agriculture supply chain in Pakistan.
- This study examines how COVID-related restrictions affected the price shares of farmers and middlemen.
- The findings reveal that farmers’ price shares reduced significantly by 12% during COVID lockdowns. Middlemen, on the other hand, increased their share of retail price by 6% from a baseline share of 65%.