Haider et al Final report January 2023
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This study explores how voters in key constituencies construct the provision of services such as electricity. To what extent does the continued provision of highly subsidised energy determine political support? Using Lahore’s politically competitive landscape, we examine whether protecting energy entitlements results in voters rewarding politicians with favorable ratings. We look at a common impetus for utility reform – the middle class. To what extent are Lahore’s middle and upper-middle classes tolerant of forms of non-payment and electricity theft?