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Federalism and decentralisation in Sudan have long been central features of the country’s political thought and recent history. Sudan is large and ethnically diverse, and federalism is seen as a way to increase subnational autonomy and address historical marginalisation and development inequities that lie at the heart of the country’s internal conflicts. Since independence, there have been numerous decentralisation efforts – many of these have not been fully implemented, in part due to central resistance to losing control of the peripheries. As such, much work remains to be done to achieve greater fiscal federalism.